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00:00:00 - Interview introduction

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Partial Transcript: This is Wisconsin State Collaboratory Oral History Project

Segment Synopsis: August 8, 1996

00:00:15 - Birthplace and upbringing

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Partial Transcript: Dr. Inhorn, could we perhaps start with some very basic questions

Segment Synopsis: SI was born in Philadelphia in 1928. He was interested in science during his early school years. He attended Western Reserve University and pursued a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. Afterwards, he decided to go to medical school.

Keywords: Pennsylvania; Philadelphia; medicine; science

00:02:26 - Columbia University Medical School

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Partial Transcript: Why did you elect to attend the School of Medicine at Columbia

Segment Synopsis: After applying to several medical schools, he chose the program at Columbia University, where he received his degree in 1953. SI mentions scientists that influenced him.

Keywords: Medical School; New York City; competition; graduation; influences; instructors

00:05:14 - Specialization in Pathology

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Partial Transcript: Did you begin you specialization in Pathology after you graduated

Segment Synopsis: After medical school, SI accepted a rotating internship in pathology at UW. When he arrived, the UW Medical School was not yet a widely recognized program

Keywords: Midwest; Pathology; UW-Madison; internship; residency; specialization

00:07:42 - Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene

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Partial Transcript: Let's turn to the Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene

Segment Synopsis: SI explains how he got involved with the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene.

Keywords: Faculty; Madison; Pathology; State Laboratory; Surgical Pathology; evolution; researchers

00:12:32 - Cytogenetic research and naval position

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Partial Transcript: What are your recollections on the initial years at the Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene before you became director in 1966?

Segment Synopsis: SI discusses the cytogenetic research that led to his appointment as the Director of the State Laboratory in 1966.

Keywords: Pathology; State Laboratory; US Navy; research; tissue culture; virus

00:20:49 - The field of cytogenetics

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Partial Transcript: At first it seemed like a very simple thing to do

Segment Synopsis: The field of cytogenetics developed during the 1960s, despite the fact that many of the people conducting the research did not have the proper training. SI explains how he became a lecturer in pathology during the last year of his residency. At one point, he was the only pathologist in the State Laboratory.

Keywords: 1960s; Philadelphia; cells; circulation; developing; medical school; preventative medicine; tissues; training

00:29:46 - Dr. Evans and infectious disease

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Partial Transcript: I am very much interested in hearing your recollections of those two very important individuals.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred Evans was an internist who had a special interest in infectious disease and preventative medicine. He did research in Germany while in the army during WWII. He developed a virus laboratory at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Evans is perhaps most famous for his research on infectious mononucleosis and for coining the term “the kissing disease.” He returned to Yale University in 1966, where he managed the World Health Organization’s serum bank.

Keywords: Laboratory; Virus; World War II; Yale University; disease; internal medicine; mononucleosis; the kissing disease; training

00:33:25 - Dr. William Stovall and State Laboratory of Hygiene

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Partial Transcript: Dr. William Stovall, people would describe as a southern gentleman

Segment Synopsis: William Stovall served as Director of the State Laboratory of Hygiene. Although he was a pathologist, his interests were primarily clinical. He was often a delegate to the American Medical Association. At one point, he served as Acting Superintendent of the Wisconsin General Hospital.

Keywords: clinical; medical school; medicine; pathology; research; surgery

00:36:44 - State Laboratory of Hygiene development

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Partial Transcript: But there was a question that came up as to whether or not there should be some charge to some specimens coming into the State Laboratory of Hygiene.

Segment Synopsis: When the State Laboratory of Hygiene was in its development stage, Evans had to decide whether doctors should be charged for specimens that came in for analysis. The fees have increased steadily over the years

Keywords: budget; chemistry; collection; development; handling fee; initial; specimen kits

00:39:43 - Responsibilities as director

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Partial Transcript: Ok moving to the time period when you became director, describe as best as you can, your responsibilities as Director.

Segment Synopsis: SI discusses his responsibilities as the Director of the State Laboratory. Its governing board met rarely. He mentions some of the UW administrators who served on the board. After some changes in government policy, the State Laboratory was required to serve the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Natural Resources as well as the University.

Keywords: Board of Health; President; President of University; department; division; health; social services

00:44:33 - Memorable colleagues

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Partial Transcript: Who were your colleagues at the time at the laboratory were Director?

Segment Synopsis: SI mentions some of his memorable colleagues and their research in virology, bacteriology, immunology, and clinical chemistry. Donald Nelson in virology.

Keywords: bacteriology; clinical chemistry; colleagues; director; immunology; laboratory; virology

00:54:34 - Development of toxicology and Medical School controversy

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Partial Transcript: What, well, I don't know whether we are actually skipping some of the other sections, what about toxicology?

Segment Synopsis: He discusses the development of toxicology at UW. John Bowers’ Medical School deanship was controversial, and eventually he was forced to resign. Peter Eichman later became Medical School dean. SI discusses changes in the Medical School chain of command.

Keywords: alcohol; chemistry; faculty; resignation; testing; toxicology; uprising

01:01:01 - Other committees SI worked on

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Partial Transcript: What else - Health Sciences Center, University and National Committees - have you worked on

Segment Synopsis: The State Laboratory of Hygiene has close ties with the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta. In 1966, the CDC asked SI to develop quality control standards for Medicare.

Keywords: Atlanta; CDC; Center for Disease Control; education; information; medicine

01:06:58 - Work with the Professional Education Service and creation of a competency exam

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Partial Transcript: Through the years I have been very active in the cytology field

Segment Synopsis: SI worked with the Professional Education Service to develop the three-part competency examination for cytotechnologists. He also served on the committee that wrote the hematology examination for laboratory directors. SI has done extensive work with the Association of State and Public Laboratory Directors, the American Public Health Association, and the American Cancer Society.

Keywords: color plates; competency; development; examination; film strip; medical technologists; tests; three-part test

01:11:51 - Crucial actions and issues to the expansion of the State Laboratory

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Partial Transcript: During the era of your directorship, which government and university actions do you consider to have been crucial

Segment Synopsis: SI discusses some of the programs that were instrumental in the State Laboratory’s expansion, such as the multi-phasic screening program, environmental testing, summer short courses, and proficiency testing.

Keywords: Detection; Public Health; advances; environment; expansion; movements; science; scientific; techniques; testing; trace amounts

01:16:36 - Laboratory situation between University and State of Wisconsin

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Partial Transcript: You were already kind to comment on some of the University

Segment Synopsis: The State Laboratory is in a unique position, because while it is associated with the University, it is also a public health facility. As a result, the State Laboratory often found itself low on the list of University priorities.

Keywords: Chancellor; President; educating; important; laboratory; public health; unique

01:21:32 - Development of cytotechnology at the University

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Segment Synopsis: Stovall first developed the State Laboratory’s interest in cytotechnology.

Keywords: Stovall; accomplishments; cancer; cytotechnology; fighting cancer; procedures

01:24:40 - Development of Pap smears

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Segment Synopsis: SI describes one of Stovall’s cancer control research projects during the 1950s.

Keywords: PAP Smears; State Cancer Society; educate; influence; pamphlets; physicians; public; successful

01:29:27 - Chair of the Department of Pathology

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Segment Synopsis: SI served as acting chair of the Department of Pathology for four years during the 1970s and then became permanent chair in 1978. He resigned after two and a half years and returned to the State Laboratory as its medical director

Keywords: Chair; Department; National; Pathology; Search; comments; concerns; evolution; turnover

01:35:45 - Chairpersons of the Department of Preventative Medicine

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Segment Synopsis: SI mentions some of the former chairpersons of the Department of Preventative Medicine, including Alfred Evans, Gerald Lawton, and John Rankin.

Keywords: notable events; objectives; strengths; styles; weaknesses

01:42:29 - Relationship between the Department of Preventative Medicine and State Laboratory of Hygiene.

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses the relationship between the Department of Preventative Medicine and the State Laboratory of Hygiene. He explains Wayne Thompson’s research on the LaCrosse encephalitis virus.

Keywords: activity; common cold; educators; focuses; individual; investigators; laboratory; research; science; teaching

01:48:11 - Changes in the field of public health

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Segment Synopsis: The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene has always been interested in making the newest technology available to the public. It has participated in technology transfer— representatives from other hospitals study at the State Laboratory in order to learn about new technology. The State Laboratory still does specialized cytogenetics testing.

Keywords: availability; cytology; evolution; institution; potential; screening; sexually transmitted diseases; testing

01:54:08 - Regarding the future of public health laboratories

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Segment Synopsis: SI speculates about the future of the Wisconsin State Laboratory. Large commercial laboratories try to offer competitive pricing with public health laboratories. Economics plays a major role in the changes in public health laboratories.

Keywords: central labs; commercial laboratories; companies; development; evolution; field; future; laboratory; large; pharmaceutical

01:58:15 - Conclusion of interview 1 01:58:25 - Introduction of second interview and relationship with his sister

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Segment Synopsis: Stanley Inhorn relates his early years in Philadelphia and Cleveland. He talks about his sister and her career.

02:01:31 - Western Reserve University in Cleveland

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses his decision to attend Western Reserve University and his choice of chemistry as his major. He talks about his social life in a fraternity, orchestra, and wrestling.

Keywords: activities; chemistry; enrolled; fraternity; home; major; orchestra; performances; quartet; violin; wrestling

02:02:40 - Parents' careers

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Segment Synopsis: SI talks about his parents and their careers.

Keywords: Cleveland; Trolley Car; apartment; bus; downtown; square

02:03:24 - Search for medical school

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Segment Synopsis: He discusses his search for a medical school and his decision to attend Columbia University and specialize in pathology. He volunteered and did research in Columbia’s Cancer Research Department under Eric Hirschberg, who encouraged SI to do his residency at UW. He talks further about his decision to come to Madison.

Keywords: Biology; Chemistry; Cleveland; Columbia; Dormatory; Madison; Medical School; New York; University

02:06:53 - Rotating internships in medical school

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Segment Synopsis: SI commenced rotating internships in medicine, surgery, neuropscyhiatry, ob-gyn, and pediatrics. He began his residency in July 1954.

Keywords: Madison; OBGYN; Pediatrics; busy; electives; interns; medicine; students; surgery; wards

02:07:48 - Meeting and marrying his wife

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Segment Synopsis: He relates meeting and marrying Shirley Sherbourne in 1954. SI was called up into the Navy in October 1954 and assigned to landing craft destined for Seattle and the West Coast. He also mentions the birth of his first child.

Keywords: 1954; Doctor Draft; January; Navy; West Coast; called up; draft; married; wife

02:10:23 - Pathology Residency 1956

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Segment Synopsis: SI resumed his pathology residency in 1956 at the State Laboratory of Hygiene under Dr. Stovall. He discusses at length the history of the State Laboratory of Hygiene. He discusses Harry Russell (a lecturer in bacteriology in the Department of Agriculture) and Cornelius Harper, who together founded the Laboratory in 1903. SI also details the responsibilities, resources, and facilities of the Laboratory.

Keywords: Madison; Public Health; State Laboratory of Hygiene; Twentieth Century; UW Campus; clinical; laboratory; pathology; residency

02:17:06 - Anatomic Pathology Department

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses the Anatomic Pathology Department and its chair, D. Murray Angevine. He discusses the centrality of teaching to residents’ learning process. He goes on to relate his rotations in the State Laboratory and the surgical pathology division at the hospital.

Keywords: additions; bone disease; department; hospital; individuals; pathology; researcher; residents; rotations; small; turnover

02:21:47 - Combining interests in cytology and microbiology

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Segment Synopsis: SI speaks of his interest in cytology and microbiology and his grant to study effects of viruses on cells. He recounts his collaboration with Dave Smith, Klaus Patau, and Eva Thurman on research on congenital abnormalities and 13 Trisomy Syndrome.

Keywords: capability; cytology; effects; funding; grant; microbiology; research; studies; virus

02:26:42 - Conclusion of residency and future plans

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses the conclusion of his residency and his decision to become assistant to Frank Larson, Director of the Hospital Clinical Labs

Keywords: Dean; Director of State Laboratory of Hygiene; Hospital Clinical Labs; Larson; Stovall; University; residency

02:28:11 - Assistant to Dr. Alfred Evans

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Segment Synopsis: Stanley Inhorn continues to discuss his career after the conclusion of his residency, including his assistantship to Dr. Alfred Evans (a virologist and Director of the State Lab). He discusses the history of a study of the Pap smear in Wisconsin from 1956-59, which influenced the founding of the school of cyto-technology to train students to administer pap smears.

Keywords: Pathology; administer; assistant director; cyto-technology; pap smear; viral infections

02:31:46 - Alfred Evans' impact on students

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses his relationship with Alfred Evans and Evans’ impact on students’ training and curriculum.

Keywords: Pathology; Preventative Medicine; State Lab; chronic diseases; impact; involved; lectures; national lecutres

02:34:17 - Assistant professorship and research

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Segment Synopsis: SI talks about his position as Assistant Professor and his continuing research with Dave Smith and John M. Opitz. He discusses a cytogenetic survey of the Central Colony population of people with mental retardation, as well as different research methods. SI talks about the application of cytogenetics to the study of the Philadelphia chromosome and leukemia.

Keywords: Milwaukee; Pap smears; analysis; collaboration; cytogenetics; experts; lab analysis; training

02:39:05 - Early phases of career in 1960s

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Segment Synopsis: He talks further about Dr. Alfred Evans and his work in epidemiology in the 1960s. In 1966, SI was appointed Director of the State Laboratory of Hygiene after Evans left UW. He goes on to discuss his research and his teaching responsibilities.

Keywords: 1960s; State Lab; WTO; career; cytogenetics; development; early; publications; serum bank; tenure

02:41:58 - Tenure as Director of the State Laboratory

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Segment Synopsis: SI talks about his tenure as Director at the State Lab and the impact of Medicare and federal regulations of clinical laboratories through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLEA) of 1967. SI was involved in creating standards and regulations for hospital laboratories. SI describes his involvement in updating CLEA in 1988.

Keywords: acting director; chronic disease; courses; expansion; hospital; improvements; infectious disease; regulations; standards

02:46:59 - Panel testing procedures

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Segment Synopsis: SI narrates the advent of a “panel testing” procedure that made laboratory testing cheaper to perform. Mobile panel testing vans made clinical tests more widely accessible

Keywords: Public Health; availability; blood-sample; cheap; machines; panels; predictions; testing

02:49:25 - Impacts of recent developments in pathology

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Segment Synopsis: He assesses the impact on the State Lab of recent developments in pathology, such as trends in obesity, and Tommy Thompson’s emphasis on prevention.

Keywords: HHS; department; obesity; preventable diseases; smoking

02:50:46 - Infectious diseases in the State Lab

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Segment Synopsis: SI talks about infectious disease scares during his tenure as director of the State Lab, including Legionnaire’s disease, swine flu, and AIDS. He talks about workshops and extension teaching.

Keywords: Pathology; activities; director; education; infectious diseases; problems; teaching

02:51:26 - History of the Pathology Department

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses the history of the Pathology Department and his acting chairmanship. He mentions poor facilities, poor staffing, and poor funding as problems in recruiting faculty. SI edited a book on laboratory quality assurance during this time as well.

Keywords: acting chairman; book; chairman; funding; issues; laboratory; problems; staffing

02:55:11 - Medical Director of the State Lab and revitalization of the Pathology Department.

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Segment Synopsis: He discusses his second term as chair of the Pathology Department and his resignation as director of the State Laboratory of Hygiene. He then became the Medical Director of the State Lab. SI mentions his attempts to revitalize the Pathology Department and his success in bringing all clinical laboratories into the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in 1978.

Keywords: Deans; Laboratories; Medical Director; Pathology; chairmanship; resignation; revitalize

02:57:14 - Chairmanship of Pathology Department

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Segment Synopsis: Stanley Inhorn continues to discuss his chairmanship of the Pathology Department. Changes in the curriculum for medical students sought to integrate the basic sciences with the clinical sciences. He notes that laboratory experience has been eliminated and most course work is carried out in lectures.

Keywords: Pathology; chairmanship; changes; curriculum; laboratory medicine; medical students; organs; psychology

03:01:08 - Male and female reproductive tracts

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Segment Synopsis: SI explains his interest in researching male and female reproductive tracts as resulting from his earlier work with pap smears. He developed a course with Dee Buchler on the female reproductive tract.

Keywords: Pap Smears; diseases; female; gynecologists; male; reproductive; second year; systems; urologists

03:02:52 - Financial problems at administrative level

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Segment Synopsis: He describes the administrative and financial problems that led to his resignation as chair of the Pathology Department

Keywords: Pathology; Program; State Lab; financial; issues; medical director; problems; resignation

03:04:18 - The last period of tenure at Wisconsin and activities outside of the University

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Segment Synopsis: SI talks about his involvement in professional pathology societies, such as the American Society of Cytology, in which he served as president. He volunteered for the American Cancer Society and chaired a committee in 1987 to increase the utilization of mammography. He also works on a state cancer control plan.

Keywords: American Cancer Society; American Society of Cytology; Health Care; activities; changes; fascinating; system

03:09:10 - Non-scientific volunteering

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Segment Synopsis: SI discusses his volunteer activity as a violin player with the Madison Symphony

Keywords: Board Member; Madison Symphony; children; music; musicians; orchestra; requirements; violin; youth

03:11:22 - Retired in 1998 at age 70

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Segment Synopsis: He explains his retirement in 1998 and discusses family vacations “on the cheap.” He talks about his children.

Keywords: 1953; USA; car trips; cheap; community; events; faculty; intern; love; musical; residency; state; vacations; winter events

03:14:14 - Conclusion

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Segment Synopsis: End of side. End of tape.

03:14:26 - Interview three introduction

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Partial Transcript: So my name is Anna Davis

Segment Synopsis: Anna Davis, interviewer, is an undergraduate in the History of Science Department and is interviewing Dr. Inhorn for an Independent Study. She hopes to fill the gaps left by the other interivews and to ask questions specifically about the State Lab of Hygiene

Keywords: History of Science; change over time; development; fill in; gaps; undergraduate

03:15:07 - Changes in Public Health infrastructure

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Partial Transcript: So the questions I gave you before

Segment Synopsis: How has public health infrastructure changed more broadly since his time at the State Laboratory of Hygiene? Public health has been around for a while. It starts at the city level, then county, then state, then national. In Wisconsin, each county has had a public health office. This usually took the form of a sanitarian who was in charge of making sure water was clean and safe. Some would have a clinic. Wisconsin's was part of the University because of the research opportunities available.

Keywords: State Laboratory of Hygiene; changes; infrastructure; public health; transformations

03:18:16 - Internal and external influences of Wisconsin's public health infrastructure

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Partial Transcript: So the labs, what were some of the internal and external

Segment Synopsis: There were always disease control programs. Describes the tuberculosis program. The Center for Disease Control is really a newer intervention entity in the history of public health. They didn't have much influence until later.

Keywords: Center for Disease Control; Tuberculosis; control; disease; influence; intervention; programs

03:20:33 - The beginning of laboratory regulations in the 1960s

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Partial Transcript: You also mentioned there was an act that was put in place

Segment Synopsis: Medicare was the first time the government was paying for health services for the elderly in 1966. 1967, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act was passed so before then, there were no real regulations on laboratories and before Medicare, there were no standards. Began working on standards in 1968. These were divided into public laboratories, hospital laboratories, and doctors offices. Had to regulate personnel, complex tests, intermediate tests, and wavered tests.

Keywords: Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act; Commercial Laboratories; Hospital Laboratory; Medicare; Public Laboratory

03:24:07 - Statewide travel

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever travel throughout the state

Segment Synopsis: He was not in charge of inspections around the state. But he was occasionally called on do some of these inspections with other people. He was in several state societies which interacted with the private labs. For example, the Wisconsin Society of Pathology

Keywords: Pathology; Wisconsin; Wisconsin Society of Pathology; inspections; private labs; societies

03:24:56 - Relationship between Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene and other labs in the Midwest.

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Partial Transcript: What kind of relationship did the Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene have with other labs in the Midwest?

Segment Synopsis: Association of Public Health Laboratories. When they started this, it was mostly made up of people in the CDC. CDC acts as the Federal Government's counterpart to states' Public Health Labs. It is larger, gets federal money to carry out new procedures and quality assurance. They did and still do have a strong relationship with CDC. Developed procedures for diagnosing and treating HIV

Keywords: CDC; Center for Disease Control; HIV; federal government; funding; procedures; quality assurance; relationship; treatments

03:27:34 - Training at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene

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Partial Transcript: What kinds of training did they have at the Wisconsin Lab in particular?

Segment Synopsis: When Dr. Ihnorn was starting out, laboratories had no idea how to do quality control of procedures. While he was there, they instituted extensive training programs for people around the state and did coursework for these labs.

Keywords: Wisconsin Lab; education; procedures; training

03:29:25 - Discussion of William Stovall and Alfred Evans

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Partial Transcript: The, whats called surgical pathology for University hospital, and that is where specimens

Segment Synopsis: William Stovall was a pathologist and ran the Surgical Pathology department at the University. He ran not only the State Public Lab buy also the University Lab. Alfred Evans replaced him. His interests were in infectious diseases. Evans was brought to UW by Stovall to create a Department of Preventative Medicine.

Keywords: Department of Preventative Medicine; infectious diseases; pathology; research; retirement

03:32:38 - Presence of women in the State Lab and relationships with the University

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Partial Transcript: Was there anything in particular for women?

Segment Synopsis: Most of the people who worked in the lab were microbiologists. Wisconsin did have a School of Medical Technology. The majority of the people who worked there were women. Departments had a lot of meetings and presentations. The residency for the disciple was four years and an internship. His first year of rotation was at the State Lab of Hygiene. Stories of his introduction to the lab

Keywords: early days; emerging field; introduction; lab technicians; laboratory; research; virology; women

03:35:42 - How his internship evolved into his research

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Partial Transcript: So I can tell you how this evolved into my research

Segment Synopsis: Dr. Inhorn tells the story of how his research interests came about. He was doing virus research for measuring cells, DNA, and nuclei. A pediatrician came to him and was interested in doing research in cyto-genetics, which was a new field at the time. He didn't know they had a cyto-geneticists in the building. He was working on plants. Shifted focus to cyto-genetics and created one of the first labs in the country.

Keywords: DNA; nuclei; pathology; research; samples; virus

03:39:19 - Experiences working with Stovall

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Partial Transcript: Kind of off of what we were just talking about

Segment Synopsis: Stovall was a real Southern gentlemen. He was a very important man in Wisconsin. He was active in and became president of the Wisconsin State Medical Society. They have a memorial to him at the Medical Society building today. He was very influential. One of his philosophies was to deliver new laboratory advancements and techniques to doctors all over the state. Story of this implementation.

Keywords: Pathology; Wisconsin State Medical Society; boss; doctors; education; memorial; samples; teaching; tissue samples

03:41:18 - Working with M. Star Nichols

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Partial Transcript: Did you ever work with Assistant Director, who I think was M. Star Nicholas?

Segment Synopsis: He was an environmental chemist who was very well-known and responsible for improving water quality. He did a lot of research on water pollution.

Keywords: environmental chemist; famous; improving; pollution; quality; research; water

03:42:31 - Daily lab life

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Partial Transcript: So kind of transitioning, what was your daily life in the lab like?

Segment Synopsis: His duties changed depending on what time of year it was. All year round, he was doing post-graduate education in Pathology. He didn't have graduate students, he had residents. His primary area was cytology and investigating Pap Smears. They came up with the modern formula for a Pap Smear.

Keywords: Pap Smear; cytology; education; investigation; pathology; post-graduate; research; residents

03:45:51 - Educational background of lab employees

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Partial Transcript: So administrative people in the lab do seem to have an MD or a PhD

Segment Synopsis: To a certain point, there were a lot of employees with MD or PhD backgrounds. But a lot of the supervisors had only an MA background. They were not that top heavy. Section chiefs and divisions of pathology and some of the other preventative medicine sections were not.

Keywords: MA; MD; PhD; backgrounds; education; varied

03:46:42 - How often people met

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Partial Transcript: We kind of touched on this last meeting

Segment Synopsis: They would have monthly meetings with the section chiefs. The sections themselves then had meetings with their people. They had a close working relationship, relied on quality assurance. Example of a glucose experiment. Everyone has to be on the same page and work together.

Keywords: collaboration; experiment; quality assurance; quality control; regulations; samples; team; team environment; teamwork

03:49:17 - Inhorn's research contributions to the University

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Partial Transcript: You mentioned and we kind of talked about this a little bit more

Segment Synopsis: Another aspect of his research had to do with quality assurance. When this first started out in the late 1960s, it was an empty slate. They had to come up with the regulations and write the manuals and books. Instituted inspection, quality control and accreditation in the laboratory setting. Example with the CDC in 1968 instituted efficiency testing.

Keywords: accreditation; books; inspection; laboratory regulations; manuals; quality assurance; universal

03:51:50 - Lab development in the early years

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Partial Transcript: Backtracking a little bit, what is your understanding of

Segment Synopsis: When he got there in 1956, after he got back from the Navy, most of the attention was to provide laboratory functions to the medical establishment around the state. They provided training, workshops, and developed their own proficiency testing program. At the beginning, they were the only lab that did virus testing.

Keywords: establishment; functions; laboratory functions; medical; proficiency testing; training; workshops

03:53:40 - Did German immigration have an effect on the lab and what was Inhorn's purpose at the lab?

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Partial Transcript: Do you think the fact that Wisconsin had largest number of German immigrants at the turn of the century had anything to do

Segment Synopsis: Inhorn doesn't seem to think so. It was strictly scientific and it just happened. He thinks that his purpose at the lab was to create a world-class, cutting edge scientific environment. He thinks they achieved this by being in the middle of the scientific part of campus. Story of Dr. Dick and the study of the common cold.

Keywords: campus; common cold; cutting edge; laboratory; participation; scientific; studies; study; virus; world class

03:58:54 - Story of a researcher who studied mosquito-borne diseases

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Partial Transcript: We had a second researcher in the laboratory who was interested in

Segment Synopsis: Researcher in the lab investigated mosquito-borne encephalitis, he was able to isolate a new virus from a child who died in La Crosse, WI. He got the brain tissue and isolated the virus. It is now called the La Crosse Virus and is the most common cause of death from encephalitis. Figured out how the mosquito transmits the virus and how it stays alive during the Wisconsin winters.

Keywords: La Crosse Virus; La Crosse, WI; animals; child; mosquito-borne encephalitis; native-born disease; researcher; virus; winter

04:00:33 - Highlight points of progress in Wisconsin's Public Health infrastructure

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Partial Transcript: I guess to highlight what points of progress in Wisconsin's public health infrastructure

Segment Synopsis: There are many points of progress. Public has never been on the front page of newspapers. Lots of people have no clue what it is. The introduction of terrorism after 9/11, biological warfare began shortly after this attack. During World War II, they worked on chemical warfare capabilities, and then nuclear capabilities. Because of this situation, the Federal Government for the first time gave a significant amount of money to Public Health and the CDC. Staff in the Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene are hired by money from the CDC.

Keywords: 9/11; CDC; Public Health; biological warfare; chemical; funding; nuclear; terrorism

04:03:23 - State and federal laboratory systems

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Partial Transcript: Another way we have interaction today which is quite different

Segment Synopsis: If terrorism occurs in one place, first you have to detect it is going on and deal with it. In Wisconsin, they have a network of laboratories who work together to discover and treat terrorism. He worked to create this system.

Keywords: Wisconsin; discovery; federal; laboratories; network; prevent; state; terrorism; treat

04:04:31 - Influenza and the World Health Organization

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Partial Transcript: One which is not terrorism but its obviously is significant is influenza

Segment Synopsis: The World Health Organizations has centers in each continent and ours is at the CDC. So they have the capability to see if the virus is mutating and if it is, they can figure out how to treat it and get the treatment in the next vaccine. It is a tricky business but the whole world is involved.

Keywords: CDC; WHO; World Health Organization; capability; influenza; interconnection; treatment; vaccine; virus

04:05:46 - Discussion of the Ebola crisis

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Partial Transcript: I guess another question on inter global connectedness

Segment Synopsis: They knew about Ebola and there had never been one that large. They realized they did not have the infrastructure in Africa to deal with such a large epidemic. If less developed countries cannot deal with these epidemics, we might be susceptible to importing these infections. However, correcting this is difficult if not impossible unless a lot of money is made available by developed countries.

Keywords: Ebola; correcting; epidemic; importing; infrastructure; less developed countries; prevention; susceptible; treatable; treatment; virus

04:07:20 - Where Inhorn thinks the lab is headed

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Partial Transcript: So my last question I have is where do you think the lab is headed and where do you hope to see it go?

Segment Synopsis: They were surprised in their current budget to see that the lab was going to be removed from the University and placed within the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture. They think it won't happen because the State Legislature won't approve this part of the governors budget.

Keywords: Department of Agriculture; Governor; State Legislature; budget; changes; politics

04:08:51 - Closing remarks

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Partial Transcript: Is there anything else you would like to add before we close?

Segment Synopsis: Inhorn concludes that he had a very interesting career and that he would not have been in public health had he not come to Wisconsin.

Keywords: Public Health; Wisconsin; career; conclusion; interesting; pathology; residency